Relatives of children with ADHD also have a higher incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders than relatives of families with no ADHD children. Conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, major affective disorder (depression or bipolar disorder), anxiety disorder, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome are seen more often in relatives of children with ADHD. Teenagers with ADHD, particularly untreated ADHD, are at risk for drug and alcohol abuse.
There are more boys than girls diagnosed with ADHD. Girls usually do not manifest disruptive behaviours to the extent seen in boys; girls with ADHD have half of the rates of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder but are much more likely to have significant social problems. Compared with boys with ADHD, they manifest more emotional distress, have higher rates of depression and anxiety, are highly vulnerable to stress, and have poor self-esteem and a limited sense of control.
Childhood ADHD and risk for substance dependence in adulthood: a longitudinal, population-based study.
The potential for misuse and abuse of medications in ADHD: a review.